Real estate and construction law

Real estate and construction law have been a crucial aspect of human societies for centuries. As the world’s population grew, so did the need for homes, offices, and other buildings. Along with this, legal frameworks were put in place to regulate the buying, selling, and building of real estate. Here is a brief history of real estate and construction law.

Ancient Civilizations

The first known legal codes regarding real estate date back to ancient Mesopotamia, around 2100 BCE. The Code of Hammurabi, which was one of the earliest known legal systems, contained laws about property and construction. In ancient Egypt, Pharaohs owned all land, and people who wanted to use it had to pay rent. Greece and Rome also had laws governing property, including zoning and construction standards.

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, land ownership was a symbol of power, and feudalism was the dominant social structure. The king owned all the land and granted titles to lords, who would then parcel it out to their vassals. The system was complex, and disputes over land ownership were common. Legal frameworks were developed to resolve these disputes, including the first property registry in the English-speaking world, which was established in 1086.

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution brought about massive changes in the real estate and construction industry. Advances in technology and transportation made it possible to build higher, larger, and more complex buildings. Governments started regulating building codes to ensure the safety of their citizens. In the United States, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) was established in 1896 to create and enforce building codes.

Modern Era

In the 20th century, real estate and construction law became more complex, reflecting the increasing complexity of the industry. Governments became more involved in the regulation of property and construction, enacting zoning laws, building codes, and environmental regulations. The growth of technology and the internet has also made it easier to buy and sell real estate and to access legal information.

Today, real estate and construction law are critical areas of practice for lawyers. They help individuals and businesses navigate the complexities of buying, selling, and developing property. They also help to ensure that construction projects comply with regulations and laws to protect the health and safety of everyone involved.

Real estate and construction law have been essential for centuries, and they continue to evolve to meet the needs of the modern world. In recent years, there has been a growing focus on sustainable development and the impact of real estate and construction on the environment. As a result, there has been a shift towards regenerative development and an expansion of legal frameworks to address these concerns.

Regenerative Development

Regenerative development is a holistic approach to development that seeks to create systems that regenerate rather than deplete natural resources. This approach recognizes that buildings and infrastructure are not standalone entities, but are part of a larger ecosystem. Regenerative development seeks to create buildings and communities that support the health and well-being of people and the planet.

Legal frameworks are critical in supporting regenerative development. For example, zoning laws can be updated to encourage the development of green spaces and the use of sustainable building materials. Building codes can be revised to require the use of renewable energy and the incorporation of green roofs and walls. Environmental regulations can also be expanded to require developers to consider the impact of their projects on the natural environment.

Expansion of Legal Frameworks

In addition to the focus on regenerative development, there has been an expansion of legal frameworks to address new challenges in the real estate and construction industry. One of the most significant challenges is the rise of short-term rentals, such as Airbnb and HomeAway. Many cities have responded by enacting regulations to restrict or regulate short-term rentals, often to protect the availability of long-term rental housing.

Another area where legal frameworks are expanding is in the use of technology. The growth of online platforms for buying and selling real estate has created new legal challenges, such as the use of electronic signatures and the protection of personal information. Legal frameworks must keep up with these technological advancements to ensure that transactions are legally binding and that personal data is protected.


In conclusion, real estate and construction law have been essential for centuries, and as the world continues to grow and change, so will the legal frameworks that govern them. As a result, legal professionals in these areas will continue to play a vital role in protecting the rights and interests of their clients.

Real estate and construction law have a rich history, and they continue to evolve to meet the needs of the modern world. Regenerative development and the expansion of legal frameworks are two areas where the industry is seeing significant changes. Legal professionals must stay up-to-date on these developments to provide their clients with the most effective legal representation. By doing so, they can help to create sustainable and equitable communities that support the health and well-being of people and the planet.

How we can help

At KPBL, we pride ourselves on our extensive experience in real estate and construction law matters. Our team of lawyers is well-equipped to handle a wide range of legal issues and transactions in this area of law.

We have a proven track record of representing investors in the purchase and sale of real estate, as well as advising landlords and tenants in lease and sale-and-leaseback transactions. Our expertise also includes representing developers in commercial and residential projects, organizing and conducting due diligence reviews, and representing clients in proceedings to obtain permits and administrative decisions in the construction process.

In addition to our transactional work, we provide valuable advice on tax-efficient and tax-secure real estate investments. Our clients can rely on us for expert guidance on the taxation of various real estate transactions, including the purchase and sale of land and buildings, as well as taking advantage of tax investment relief for residential purposes.

We also advise on avoiding income tax when selling or transferring real estate, both residential and non-residential. Our team is well-versed in recent tax laws, including the tax on revenues from real estate ownership located within the Republic of Poland with an initial value exceeding PLN 10,000,000.

At KPBL, we recognize the importance of understanding the intricacies of real estate tax. We provide comprehensive advice on whether the sale of a given property will be subject to Value Added Tax and the conditions for exemption.

Our team of lawyers stays up-to-date with the latest developments in administrative court jurisprudence and tax authorities’ interpretations to provide our clients with effective legal assistance. We are committed to representing our clients in any disputes with tax authorities should they arise.

For clients seeking official tax interpretations, we are always ready to prepare formal applications that present not only the facts of the case but also extensive legal arguments and positions. Our goal is to present the legal arguments in a clear and concise manner, ensuring a quick and favorable response from the tax authorities.

Contact us today to learn how we can assist you with your real estate and construction law matters.

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